European regulations, such as the Energy Efficiency Act, use the primary energy factor and CO2 emission equivalent factor to evaluate technologies. There are different approaches to calculate the factors for electricity, especially for electricity generated by combined heat and power plants.
The study compared the relevant approaches and determined both factors for the displacement mix in the EU-28. This displacement mix is a simplified marginal approach, which represents the electricity mix that is substituted by additional CHP electricity production.
Figure 1: Resulting primary energy factors for electricity in the EU-28 including grid losses according to the displacement mix method in relation to the lower heating values
Figure 2: Comparison of the composition of the generation mix with the displacement mix in the European Union and the resulting primary energy factor and CO2 equivalent emission factor for the displacement mix