IEWT 2017 - Increasing residential self-consumption of PV energy by DSM

Strom-, Wärme- und Hybridnetze

Vortrag im Rahmen der IEWT Wien am 16. Februar 2017

Autoren: Michael Hinterstocker, Paul Schott, Serafin von Roon

Motivation and research question

In Germany, PV grid parity for private household customers has been reached in 2012 [1]. Since then, direct consumption of self-produced PV power is more profitable for newly installed photovoltaic systems than feeding it into the grid. This paper investigates the impact of Demand Side Management (DSM) on the households’ electric consumption behavior in order to maximize the ratio of self-consumption. It is assumed that every household owns a photovoltaic system to analyze both the potential monetary savings and the increased self-consumption by shifting suitable household appliances.

Methods

The computations are based on data which is acquired in [2,3]. They include electrical load for 565 German households for one year, as well as individual load curves, which are assigned to a certain home appliance [2]. Furthermore, the methods from [4] are used to compute the photovoltaic production for the households’ location in matching temporal resolution. Three different time periods (3?h, 5?h and 8?h) for possible delay of the household appliances are investigated [5]. Besides the delayed one also an earlier use and its effects are investigated. Moreover, the effect of the installed photovoltaic peak power (3?kW, 5?kW and 7?kW) on the results is examined.
The objective of the algorithm is to maximize the self-consumption, i. e. the percentage of produced PV energy which is directly consumed by household, for the considered time period. For each recognized appliance use, the sum of self-consumed PV power for the whole interval is calculated. Then the appliance’s load profile is iteratively delayed for a minute until the maximum delay (3?h, 5?h and 8?h) is reached, while self-consumption for the modified load profile is computed for each shift. The maximum self-consumption, which can be reached by DSM, defines the optimal time for the respective household appliance.

Results and Conclusions

Figure 1 (left) shows the normalized probabilities for starting the dishwasher for every hour of the day, averaged over the analyzed year [2]. The respective distribution with a simulated delay of 8?h for 5?kW peak power is depicted in Figure 1 (right). Comparison shows that appliance uses are mainly shifted to hours around noon where photovoltaic production is usually high. Moreover, uses from the night are delayed to the morning, whereas uses during the evening are not shifted because the radiation decreases for later timeframes.

dishwasher uses1 diswasher uses2

Figure 1: Normalized probability für the original (left) and shifted (right) dishwasher uses

Table 1 shows the mean yearly monetary saving potential for all considered households. These values are quite small because shifting household appliances usually only increases self-consumption by several Watt-hours, thus saving only a fraction of the theoretically possible 14?Cent/kWh. Moreover, a saturation effect can be deduced from the table, because the values for a peak power of 5?kW are higher than for 7?kW.

 

Table 1: Average monetary saving potential

PV peak power

3 h

5 h

8 h

3 kW

2.12 €

2.49 €

2.83 €

5 kW

2.27 €

2.64 €

3.08 €

7 kW

2.18 €

2.53 €

3.04 €

Further Information:

 

References


[1]    Wiest, Michael; Finkel, Michael; Engel, Bernd: Innovatives Energiemanagement bei Haushaltskunden - ein Beitrag zur Netzstabilität? in: 13. Symposium Energieinnovation. Graz, Österreich: TU Graz, 2014
[2]    Michael Hinterstocker, Paul Schott, Serafin von Roon: Disaggregation of household load profiles. Wien: 10. Internationale Energiewirtschaftstagung, submitted, 2017
[3]    C. Bruce-Boye und D. A. Kasakov: Quality of Uni- and Multicast Services in a Middleware. LabMap Study Case. In: Innovative Algorithms and Techniques in Automation, Industrial Electronics and Telecommunications (2007), Springer Verlag 2007 ISBN: 978-1-4020-6265-0 (HB), S. 89-94.
[4]    Staudacher, Thomas: Entwicklung eines Modells zur techno-ökonomischen und ökologischen Analyse dezentraler Stromversorgungssysteme für private Haushalte. Dissertation an der Technischen Universität München - Fakultät für Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik, München 2016
[5]    Stamminger, Rainer; Anstett, Verena: Effectiveness of demand side management by variable energy tariffs in the households - results of an experimental design with a ?ctive tariff model. Bonn: University of Bonn, 2013
[6]    Wirth, H.: Aktuelle Fakten zur Photovoltaik in Deutschland. Freiburg: Fraunhofer-Institut für Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), 2016

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